Les circuits courts sous le feu des projecteurs

« Qu’est-ce qu’on maaange ??!! »  En ces temps de confinement, c’est certainement LA question qui a rythmé les journées d’un grand nombre de français. Adieu les bons petits plats au restaurant ou à la cantine du boulot, c’est à votre tour de passer derrière les fourneaux. Alors que l’alimentation est devenue notre principale source de dépense, elle s’est également transformée en une source d’interrogations. Si les ventes en ligne via le drive ou la livraison ont connu une incroyable hausse dépassant les 10% de part de marché certaines semaines (contre 5,7% sur l’année 2019), un autre mode de distribution a vu ses ventes exploser : les circuits courts.

Un circuit court, c’est quoi ?  Selon la définition donnée par le ministère de l’Agriculture et de l’Alimentation, un circuit court est un « mode de commercialisation des produits agricoles qui s’exerce soit par la vente directe du producteur au consommateur, soit par la vente indirecte, à condition qu’il n’y ait qu’un seul intermédiaire. » Vous l’aurez donc compris, consommer en circuit court c’est favoriser les producteurs locaux en consommant des produits de saisons cultivés près de chez vous.

Puisque les français avaient plus de temps pour réfléchir à ce qu’ils mettaient dans leurs assiettes, beaucoup se sont tournés vers ce circuit solidaire et de nombreux agriculteurs ont ainsi vu leur demande exploser. Entre les livraisons de paniers à domicile et l’ouverture de drives à la ferme, les agriculteurs ont su s’organiser pour vendre leurs produits dans le respect des consignes sanitaires. Mais comme on pouvait s’en douter, cette situation n’a pas pu profiter à tout le monde… En effet, l’épidémie de Coronavirus a coupé l’herbe sous le pied des agriculteurs habitués à distribuer leurs produits sur les marchés de plein air. Pour leur éviter des pertes considérables, les collectivités et les régions ont alors pris l’initiative de créer des cartes interactives permettant aux français de découvrir les producteurs proches de chez eux. Si la carte du Collège Culinaire de France regroupe des artisans localisés un peu partout sur le territoire national, de nombreuses régions ont développé leur propre site internet. C’est par exemple le cas des régions Occitanie, PACA, Bretagne ou Centre-Val de Loire.

produits locaux en Bretagne
Plateforme de la région Bretagne
circuits courts régions Occitanie
Plateforme de la région Occitanie

Mais si le Coronavirus a placé les circuits courts sous le feu des projecteurs, ce mode de distribution avait déjà le vent en poupe depuis quelques années. D’après une étude menée à la fin de l’année 2018 par l’Agence Bio, 57% des français disent avoir modifié leurs habitudes d’achat et leurs comportements alimentaires ces dernières années. Alors que 61% des français essayent d’éviter le gaspillage, ils portent également une attention particulière à acheter des produits de saison (58%) et/ou biologiques (43%). Enfin 52% des répondants privilégiaient déjà les produits locaux et les circuits courts en 2018 et ces chiffres n’ont cessé d’augmenter ces deux dernières années.

Afin de s’adapter à ces nouveaux comportements alimentaires, de nombreuses associations de producteurs se sont alors créées, en voici deux exemples :

LA RUCHE QUI DIT OUI !

logo la ruche qui dit ouiCréée en 2011, La ruche qui dit oui ! est une plateforme collaborative regroupant 10 000 producteurs Français et Européens. Leur objectif ? « Permettre aux consommateurs d’acheter des produits sains et de qualité en direct des producteurs, en leur assurant des débouchés économiques justes ». Avec plus d’1,5 millions de personnes inscrites sur la plateforme, le confinement leur a été bénéfique puisque le réseau a observé une hausse de 70% de son chiffre d’affaires et son nombre de fournisseurs a augmenté de 30%.

 

LES ASSOCIATIONS POUR LE MAINTIEN D’UNE AGRICULTURE PAYSANNE (AMAP)

logo AMAPCréées en 2003, ces associations issues de l’économie sociale et solidaire ont pour but d’établir des contrats entre un paysan et un groupe de consommateurs. A travers ces contrats, les consommateurs s’engagent à payer à l’avance une partie de la récolte du producteur, qui en échange devra chaque semaine leur fournir un panier de produits variés (fruits, légumes, œufs, fromage…) correspondant aux produits arrivés à maturité sur son exploitation. Le prix du panier est fixé préalablement de façon équitable afin de permettre à la fois au paysan de couvrir ses frais de production et de percevoir un revenu acceptable, et au consommateur d’accéder à des produits locaux de qualité à un prix abordable. A travers cette démarche, les membres des AMAP luttent pour préserver l’existence des fermes de proximité et encouragent une agriculture durable, socialement équitable et écologiquement saine.

 

Dans un monde rythmé par la mondialisation, nous avons donc pu voir qu’en cas de crise, les français ont tendance à se replier vers leur culture locale en recherchant à la fois de la transparence et de la fiabilité. Les circuits courts ont ainsi pu s’imposer comme un choix de référence, permettant aux français d’accéder à des produits locaux, sains et de saison tout en soutenant les producteurs de leur région.

Mais alors selon vous, les circuits courts : tendance durable ou consommation temporaire ?

Candice

Découvrez un autre de mes articles ici !

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