Les placements de produit au cinéma : une aubaine pour les marques

Placement produit mcdonalds cinquieme element

Tu en as marre des pauses publicité lorsque tu regardes la télé ? Tu décides alors de te caler devant un bon film pour être tranquille… Mais méfie toi, la publicité te suit toujours ! Je parle bien évidemment des placements de produits au cinéma. Petit rappel pour notre culture : selon le CSA, le placement de produit se définit comme toute forme de communication commerciale audiovisuelle consistant à inclure un produit, un service ou une marque ou à y faire référence, en l’insérant dans un programme, moyennant paiement ou autre contrepartie. Pour faire plus court, c’est lorsqu’une marque apparaît dans une scène de film afin d’en faire la publicité. La première utilisation du placement de produit remonte à 1886 dans un film réalisé par les frères Lumière. Il est donc difficile de comptabiliser le nombre de placements de produits existants depuis ces nombreuses années, mais cette technique de communication a bien évolué au fil du temps.

Différents types de placement de produit…

Lorsque l’on analyse le placement de produit dans les films, on remarque qu’il existe différentes manières d’exposer une marque au spectateur.

La plus classique est la simple présence du produit à l’écran, sans aucune interaction avec ce produit dans le scénario. En quelque sorte, le produit fait simplement partie du décor : une voiture de marque qui passe en arrière-plan, un produit alimentaire posé sur une étagère, un distributeur de boissons dans un couloir, autant d’exemples qui sont très souvent présents à l’écran.

Placement produit Heinz shining
Heinz a profité du film Shining pour apparaître à l’écran

Le produit peut également être utilisé par l’acteur lors de son exposition à l’écran. Il ne s’agit pas ici d’accorder un réel rôle au produit, mais de le mettre en avant dans son utilisation. Les exemples sont là aussi très nombreux : un personnage qui boit une canette de soda, qui lit un journal, qui conduit une voiture… Très souvent, il s’agit d’actions du quotidien qui mettent le produit en situation, mais certains produits peuvent être associés à un moment plus important du film, comme dans le célèbre Forrest Gump, où le personnage reçoit en cadeau une paire de Nike. Ce genre de placement permet de donner de la valeur au produit aux yeux des spectateurs, dans le but de les faire devenir de futurs consommateurs. La marque championne dans cette catégorie est surement Apple, présente dans un nombre de films incalculable : Mac, iPhone, iPod, ses produits sont très souvent utilisés par les personnages de film.

placement produit apple kick ass
Le super héros Kick-Ass utilise un Apple

Il arrive aussi que la marque soit présente à travers un produit qui détient un rôle important dans le film. L’exemple le plus connu est bien entendu la célèbre voiture de James Bond qui n’est rien d’autre que l’Aston Martin, devenue un objet culte du cinéma.

Certaines marques peuvent également faire parties intégrantes du scénario comme la marque FedEx dans Seul au monde. Si Chuck Noland alias Tom Hanks n’avait pas embarqué dans l’avion-cargo de la compagnie dans laquelle il travaille, il ne se serait pas retrouvé sur cette île…

Ce type de placement de produit permet de mettre en avant les fonctions du produit et d’y apporter une valeur ajoutée en créant un univers autour de la marque.

aston martin db5 james bond sean connery placement produit
Sean Connery, aka James Bond devant son Aston Martin DB5
Placement Produit Fex Ex Tom Hanks Seul Au Monde
Tom Hanks ouvre les colis Fed Ex dans Seul Au Monde

Il arrive aussi que la marque décide de customiser son produit pour le placer dans un film. Par customiser, on entend créer un objet qui n’existe pas ou s’inspirer des caractéristiques du produit pour l’intégrer différemment dans le film. Il s’agit souvent de scénarios qui se déroulent dans le futur, ce qui permet à la marque de se projeter dans l’avenir des consommateurs. Pour illustrer ce type de placement, le meilleur exemple est bien sur celui des Nike à laçage automatique de Retour vers le futur 2. Nous sommes en 2018 et nous attendons toujours, mais la marque a réalisé un des coups de pub les plus historiques grâce à ce film !

retour vers le futur nike hoverboard placement produit
Nike était déjà dans le futur avec les chaussures de Marty McFly

… à manier avec précaution.

Le placement de produits est l’une des techniques de communication qui engendre le plus de visibilité pour les marques. Certaines d’entre elles ont alors tendance à user avec excès de cette vitrine, bien souvent sans trop réfléchir à la manière dont le produit sera mis en avant. S’il y a bien une chose qu’un amateur de films n’aime pas trouver au cinéma, c’est la présence intempestive d’un produit lors d’une scène. Les gros plans sur un produit ou la répétition du nom de la marque dix fois à la minute peuvent donner au spectateur l’impression d’assister à une pause réclame, et ont tendance à être perçus comme des parasites dans le scénario d’un film. Les marques doivent alors trouver le juste équilibre entre pure publicité et mise en contexte du produit, tout en ayant pour but de séduire les spectateurs et d’apporter de la valeur au produit. C’est là que la créativité entre en scène… Le placement de produit dans le film World War Z est l’un des exemples les plus cités en tant que mauvais placement. On y voit Brad Pitt, qui joue le personnage principal, tomber sur un distributeur qui propose seulement du Pepsi alors qu’il était privé d’eau depuis un long moment. Une scène peu crédible, mal placée et peu appréciée du public…

Et les spectateurs dans tout ça ?

Des études montrent que les spectateurs sont plutôt réceptifs au placement de produit, dans la mesure où la marque n’est pas omniprésente dans le film. Un mauvais placement de produit peut rapidement décrédibiliser la marque ET le film ! Il est pourtant difficile pour les marques d’évaluer les retombées d’un placement de produit. Comment connaître son influence sur les spectateurs? Certes, un bon placement de produit peut faire décoller les ventes, mais il peut être important pour les marques de connaître des indicateurs plus précis afin de développer leur communication par le biais du cinéma.

Marion Pauvert

 

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