Un nudge est traditionnellement présenté comme un coup de pouce.La théorie développée étant que les suggestions indirectes sont plus efficaces que l’instruction directe. Les nudges ont tout d’abord trouvé leur utilité dans les politiques publiques, notamment aux Etats-Unis, pour travailler sur le programme de santé publique. Le Royaume-Uni n’est pas en reste, ainsi David Cameron aurait fait modifier la page d’accueil du site internet du programme de don d’organe en ajoutant cette mention : « Chaque jour, des milliers de gens qui voient cette page décident de s’enregistrer ». Le taux d’accord est passé en un an de 2,3 % à 3,2 % soit 96 000 adhésions supplémentaires.
Mais un nudge : qu’est-ce que c’est ?
L’exemple le plus fameux de nudge est celui de la fausse mouche peinte au fond des urinoirs d’Amsterdam. Les usagers ayant tendance à viser le dessin, il a été constaté une baisse de 80% des dépenses de nettoyage des toilettes hommes. C’est qu’on aime faire mumuse.
Les politiques de santé publique ont été souvent tournées vers l’information concernant les risques de tels ou tels comportements, mais on ne prend pas forcément la bonne décision, et après tout le cancer pourquoi pas !
Les nudges s’appliquent donc à définir un processus de choix qui tiendrait compte des émotions, des normes sociales et de l’environnement, de l’envie de pisser sur une mouche.
Les différents types de nudges
L’orientation du choix par défaut
Au Royaume-Uni, certains employeurs ont décidé, pour s’assurer que leurs collaborateurs épargnent suffisamment en prévision de leurs retraites, d’inscrire automatiquement leurs salariés dans un régime de retraite supplémentaire plutôt que de leur laisser le choix d’y adhérer, ils gardent cependant la possibilité de se désengager mais au final très peu le font. Avec le Brexit mieux vaut mettre de l’oseilles sous l’oreiller, faudrait pas être obligé de vendre ses organes.
On peut également citer la programmation par défaut des imprimantes en recto-verso, peu d’utilisateurs viennent modifier ce paramètre au moment de l’impression.
L’influence du groupe
Il a été prouvé à travers différentes expériences scientifiques l’importance de l’influence du groupe et de la norme sociale sur nos choix. Traduction: On a pas de personnalité, on fait comme tout le monde, on se rapproche plus du mouton qu’autre chose.
Nous pouvons citer l’exemple des
moutons clients d’un hôtel y séjournant pour plusieurs jours trouvant une affichette avec le message suivant « 75% des personnes ayant occupé cette chambre avant vous ont utilisé leurs serviettes plusieurs fois. Vous pouvez les rejoindre en réutilisant vos serviettes durant votre séjour. Vous protégerez l’environnement ». Ce message contribue à maintenir le taux affiché.
Autre exemple, dans la ville Californienne de La Verne, chaque jour durant un mois était apposé sur la porte de 120 maisons une affichette informant les occupants du nombre de leurs voisins participant au recyclage des ordures et de la quantité de déchets recyclés. Il en a résulté une hausse de 19% du taux de recyclage.
Le fractionnement est un exemple de nudge particulièrement utilisé dans le commerce et le marketing.
Le fractionnement d’une tâche ou d’une dépense permet de réveiller un sentiment d’urgence à chaque rendez-vous fixé.
Nous pouvons prendre l’exemple de l’abonnement à une salle de sport, il a été prouvé que permettre un paiement échelonné entraîne une hausse du nombre d’abonnements annuels.
Le nudge vous l’avez donc compris, c’est l’art de présenter les choses.
(Depuis tout à l’heure je parle du paiement en 4 fois sur Cdiscount en gros)
Quelle application en entreprise et particulièrement dans la gestion des Ressources Humaines ?
Les nudges nous l’avons vu plus haut ont particulièrement été utilisés dans la fonction marketing, l’exemple le plus amusant (ou le plus effrayant selon le point de vue), est celui fourni par le célèbre fabriquant de soupe Campbell.
Les équipes de Campbell avaient remarqué que lors d’une promotion, le client achetait en moyenne 3 conserves de soupe. Ils ont donc décidé de modifier leurs promotions et ont ajouté une limite de 12 conserves par consommateur. Résultat, le client devant cette information s’est mis à acheter en moyenne 7 boites de conserve.
Les fonctions RH ont découvert depuis peu la possibilité d’utiliser les nudges dans les fonctions managériales. Elles permettent pour un faible coût d’influencer le comportement de ses collaborateurs, ce qui peut particulièrement être utile lors d’une campagne de conduite de changement. Cela permet également au manager de sortir du délire bâton / carotte pour guider ses équipes.
Ainsi, Alan Eustace (ancien Vice-Président de Google, c’est aussi le mec qui a sauté de 41,4 km d’altitude en parachute) avait pris pour habitude lors de la période d’attribution des promotions d’adresser un mail à ses collaboratrices contenant les informations suivantes :
- Les femmes lèvent moins la main que les hommes quand on leur demande de résoudre un problème mathématique, alors qu’elles ont un meilleur taux de réussite quand elles le font.
- En réunion, les femmes ne partagent pas autant leurs idées que les hommes, même si les observateurs relèvent que celles-ci sont souvent meilleures que celles proposées par leurs collègues masculins.
Suite à ce mail le nombre de femmes candidates puis promues a immédiatement augmenté et ce à chaque fois qu’il envoyait ce courriel. Lorsqu’il a oublié d’envoyer cet email le nombre de candidates a brusquement chuté. Fin je dis « oublié », mais il l’a fait exprès pour voir si ça marchait hein. Faut pas oublier que le mec fait des sauts en parachutes depuis la stratosphère.
Les nudges sont des outils puissants, les pouvoirs publics et les publicitaires s’en servent déjà largement mais l’application dans la gestion des ressources humaines reste encore en grande partie à inventer. Nul doute qu’elles se feront nombreuses dans les années à venir.
Nous l’avons vu tout au long de cet article la démarche se veut positive et vertueuse mais elle flirte bien souvent avec la manipulation, il convient donc d’être particulièrement vigilant sur ce point.
D’autre part comme nous venons de le voir avec le mail d’Alan Eustace, un nudge n’est qu’une « béquille », il ne change pas durablement un comportement. Leur utilisation peut également être critiquable dans la mesure où elle vient en complète opposition avec l’idée de bien informer un individu sur les différentes options qui s’offrent à lui pour lui permettre de faire un choix éclairé.
Vous avez aimé ? Vous pouvez lire ça sur comment gagner rapidement de l’argent, ou un super article sur Fortnite.
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