La théorie du Nudge que l’on appelle : petit « coup de pouce », peut se traduire par une incitation bienveillante qui vise à changer une attitude, et encourager l’adoption d’un comportement positif de manière douce, pour soi comme pour les autres. Les solutions du nudge sont inspirées des sciences comportementales.
Le Nudge a d’abord été utilisé dans le cadre de politiques publiques.
Le Nudge est particulièrement efficace, et a des résultats impressionnants, ce qui soulève des questions d’éthiques.
Cherche-t-on une fois de plus à nous manipuler ?
Une question persiste tout de même dans les esprits : le Nudge pourrait-il s’apparenter à de la manipulation ? En effet, il est possible de se dire que l’application de cette théorie pourrait toucher à l’autonomie et à la dignité des individus. Cass Sunstein, dans un article paru dans le Yale Journal of Regulation parle de l’éthique autour du « Nudging ».
Pour lui, il est inutile de s’opposer étant donné que les êtres humains ne peuvent pas vivre dans un monde sans ceux-ci. Même le gouvernement le plus minime se doit de créer une architecture du choix de plusieurs manières. Selon le professeur, ces coups de pouce sont une solution pour accroître le bien-être social. Il indique que certaines altérations de l’architecture du choix peuvent être controversées si les objectifs sous-jacents sont illicites. Cependant, si le but reste légitime, les nudges ne devraient pas poser de problème éthique, en particulier lorsqu’ils promeuvent les choix informés. La transparence doit donc être au cœur d’une architecture de choix et de nudges afin qu’ils ne nuisent pas à la liberté individuelle.
Le Nudge essaye donc d’essuyer la critique, le but du « coup de pouce » est de modifier les comportements, mais pas de modifier les croyances ou les intentions, ce n’est donc pas une forme de manipulation.
Benjamin Bodson, chercheur à la faculté de droit et de criminologie de l’UCL, explique que pour lui : « Il y a deux écoles : ceux qui pensent qu’il faut dire qu’on nudge et ceux qui pensent que si on le dit, le nudge cesse d’être efficace. Je suis plutôt de la première école : il faut être complètement transparent là-dessus au risque de perdre la confiance des gens ».
À son sens, l’efficacité n’en serait pas pour autant compromise : ce n’est pas parce que nous sommes conscients des stratégies marketing que nous y sommes insensibles.
Alors peut-on considérer que l’on manipule dans ces cas-là, pour beaucoup la frontière entre nudge et manipulation est fine mais si les institutions et les entreprises respectent certains codes, le nudge est efficace et ne s’apparente pas à de la manipulation. La transparence est la clé du succès, il faut expliquer ses objectifs et les mécanismes utilisés pour la mise en place du nudge marketing.
On sait qu’aujourd’hui les entreprises se penchent sur cette théorie du nudge, mais dans ces cas-là, il faut que la position de la marque soit très claire, et que le nudge ne s’applique pas pour améliorer la rentabilité de l’entreprise mais uniquement pour le bien social, c’est à dire que le nudge doit encourager des comportements qui profitent à tout le monde mais pas uniquement à l’entreprise.
Overdose des consommateurs ?
Aujourd’hui le nudge est de plus en plus utilisé et fait partie intégrante de nos vies. Dès lors que l’on prend le métro, on nous indique comment se placer à l’ouverture et à la fermeture des portes, dans les rues, les poubelles sont très bien indiquées pour inciter les gens à ne pas jeter leurs déchets dans la rue, ou encore dès lors qu’il y a un escalier ou un ascenseur, on pousse les personnes à emprunter l’escalier.
Mais une question peut se poser, les citoyens n’arrivent-ils pas à saturation ? Est-ce que le nudge est aussi efficace qu’à ses débuts ?
C’est pour ces raisons que le nudge doit être personnalisé, il faut se démarquer, pour ne pas appliquer les mêmes mécanismes que les autres pour éviter que les individus se lassent et donc que le nudge n’est plus aucun impact. Cette technique d’incitation bienveillante fait ses preuves, dans la mesure où on l’envisage pour ce qu’elle est : une forme originale de soft power.
Le nudge est une trouvaille qui fait c’est preuve et qui est bénéfique pour la société, et s’il est bien réalisé il a de longs jours devant lui.
Et vous vous sentez-vous manipulé ?
81 thoughts on “Nudge marketing : Coup de pouce ou manipulation ?”
le nudge maketing, c’est un peu l’équivalent de la discrimination positive ! On n’en veut pas mais il en faut bien un peu …
Découverte d’un nouveau mot dans mon langage le « NUDGE »
Pas facile à placer, mais on peut toujours en avoir besoin
Vive le nudge! Mais avec modération ! Comme le Mojito…
Méthode douce pour inspirer la bonne décision …. Voilà ce qui me convient !!!
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