Vols sans destination : coup de communication ou véritable action économique ?

Mesdames et Messieurs, bienvenus sur ce vol à destination de nulle part. Cette annonce vous semble tout droit venue d’un film futuriste et pourtant. Aujourd’hui décolle le vol QF787 de la compagnie australienne Qantas Airways au départ de Sydney et à destination de… Sydney.

Avion de la compagnie aérienne australienne Qantas Airways – Crédit : Fezbot2000 sur Unsplash.

Quel est ce nouveau “phénomène” ?

C’est dans un contexte tendu de crise sanitaire et financière que de nombreuses compagnies ont décidées de se réinventer en offrant des expériences inédites aux personnes en manque d’altitude : des vols panoramiques au départ et à l’arrivée du même aéroport.

La première compagnie à avoir proposé ce type d’expérience est China Airlines via une loterie où plus de 7000 Taïwanais ont pu participer pour gagner leur place pour l’un de ces faux vols. À l’aéroport, les passagers ont pu réaliser tout le parcours comme s’ils prenaient un vrai vol : passage des douanes, cartes d’embarquement, consignes de sécurité à bord, … Tout était prévu pour que l’expérience soit complète. Qu’ont-ils survolé ? Rien, ils sont simplement restés sur le tarmac.

Ce n’est qu’en Août que la compagnie a décidé de retenter l’expérience mais avec cette fois-ci un décollage et atterrissage à Taipei.

Eva Air, une autre compagnie chinoise, a également décidé de proposer une expérience de ce type. La différence ? Un avion aux couleurs du célèbre personnage Hello Kitty. Au programme : 2h50 de vol au-dessus de Taïwan et de l’archipel japonais avec un repas réalisé par un chef étoilé.

Avion Hello Kitty de la compagnie aérienne chinoise Eva Air – Crédit : Le Figaro

La Royal Brunei Airlines a elle aussi proposé sa version avec des vols “Dine and Fly” (“Diner et voler”). Alors quand on sait que les aliments en altitude perdent de leur saveur on espère que la vue valait le déplacement.

Chez l’australienne Qantas Airways, c’est en seulement une dizaine de minutes que les 134 billets se sont écoulés pour le vol panoramique d’aujourd’hui, le 10 Octobre 2020, avec des prix variant de 500 € à 2 300 €. Son président – directeur général, Monsieur Alan JOYCE, a d’ailleurs annoncé que “c’est probablement le vol qui s’est vendu le plus rapidement de l’histoire de la compagnie”. Ce voyage permettra de survoler plusieurs lieux iconiques de l’Australie et du Pacifique pendant 7 heures.

Mais pourquoi ?

La crise sanitaire liée à l’épidémie de Covid-19 n’épargne pas l’économie mondiale. L’impact financier est important sur le secteur du tourisme qui a grandement souffert de la période de confinement qui a eu lieu sur la quasi-totalité du globe. Et cet impact a été tout particulièrement violent pour le secteur de l’aérien. L’IATA (International Air Transport Association) a annoncé que le secteur aérien allait “perdre 77 milliards de dollars sur la deuxième partie de 2020 (soit 300 000$ par minutes !) malgré une reprise [de l’activité] dans certains pays”. Plusieurs scénarios de reprises ont été envisagés et le plus optimiste est que le secteur devrait retrouver son activité d’avant crise dans au moins trois ans.  En effet, l’IATA annonce que l’ “industrie aérienne ne devrait pas recommencer à générer du bénéfice avant 2022”.

Dans certains pays asiatiques, comme au Singapour, où il n’existe aucune liaison intérieure, les conséquences de l’arrêt du trafic aérien international sont dramatiques. Ces vols sans destination sont donc une occasion pour les compagnies de faire voler leurs appareils et de continuer à faire travailler une partie de leurs équipages afin d’éviter de tous les mettre au chômage. En comparaison, les compagnies européennes ont été légèrement moins impactées du fait qu’elles ont pu reprendre les vols au sein de l’espace Schengen dès la mi-Juin, alors même que les espaces aériens des autres pays étaient encore fermés.

Avions arrêtés à l’aéroport – Crédit : Tomas Williams sur Unsplash.

Et notre planète dans tout ça ?

Il y a peu, l’ICCT (International Council on Clean Transport) annonçait que les vols commerciaux avaient émis plus de 915 millions de tonnes de CO2 en 2019, soit 2% des émissions de gaz à effet de serre de la planète. Il est alors légitime de se demander si ce type de prestations maintenant proposé par les compagnies aériennes vaut réellement le coup aux vues de l’impact environnemental.

En comparaison, et d’après l’organisation Réseau Action Climat, le transport aérien mondial émet deux fois plus de CO2 que n’en émet la France sur tout son territoire. Le réseau aérien est responsable de 5% du changement climatique et s’il était un pays il serait le 7ème plus gros pollueur du monde.

Pour faire face aux réactions négatives sur les réseaux sociaux, Qantas Airways a assurer qu’elle paierait en compensation des émissions de carbone de ses vols.

Mais la planète accepte-elle encore le “cash” ?

Certains avancent aujourd’hui qu’avec le peu de vols ayant eu lieu cette année, l’impact de ces quelques vols supplémentaires est moindre.

Pourtant, de plus en plus de mouvements émergent avec cette “honte de prendre l’avion” comme le “flygskam” : boycott de l’avion pour des raisons écologiques. Mouvement soutenue par Greta Thunberg qui avait rejoint les États-Unis depuis l’Europe en skipper et était rentrée en bateau cargo.

Alors ces “flight to nowhere” vont-ils perdurer ?

C’est un succès à prendre “avec des pincettes” car seulement quelques vols ont aujourd’hui été proposés et aux vu des réactions sur les réseaux sociaux et des écologistes on tend à penser que dès que le trafic aérien va reprendre un rythme normal le nombre de voyageur en manque d’altitude devrait baisser en même temps. Bien que dans un sondage réalisé récemment par l’IATA, “2/3 des voyageurs ont indiqués qu’ils comptaient reporter leurs voyages jusqu’à que l’économie mondiale ou que leur situation financière personnelle se stabilise”.

En tout cas, en France, aucun projet en ce sens ne semble prendre forme, l’heure est plutôt à la diminution des vols d’avion pour les courtes distances réalisables par voies ferroviaires. Avec un projet d’interdiction des publicités pour les produits et services polluants, est-ce que le secteur aérien arrivera à se réinventer ?

Justine C

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