Le marketing peut-il servir la culture ?
La culture et le marketing ont été pendant longtemps opposés car ce dernier est considéré comme étant agressif, commercial et très publicitaire. En effet, le milieu culturel craint peut être de perdre sa liberté artistique en s’associant avec ce domaine.
Le marketing et la communication sont surtout des moyens de rendre accessibles à tous une information de façon claire et par ce biais, de faire connaître l’organisation ou l’entreprise auprès de sa cible. Le marketing peut donc être positif ou négatif selon l’utilisation que l’on en fait.
C’est comme ça qu’est né, le MARKETING CULTUREL.
Le marketing culturel, quesako ?
Selon Dominique Bourgeon-Renault, c’est « l’ensemble des outils dont dispose une organisation pour susciter, de la part de ses publics, des comportements favorables à la réalisation de ses objectifs organisationnels ». (Marketing de l’art et de la culture, 2009).
Le marketing culturel peut être considéré comme un marketing de l’offre puisque de manière générale, après avoir terminé la création artistique, on va à la rencontre du public. Au contraire, le marketing de la demande prend en compte les attentes et les besoins des consommateurs potentiels.
L’approche est donc différente du marketing classique, on peut relever plusieurs points de différenciation :
1 Il y a deux cibles vraiment différentes.
- Les institutionnels, qui assurent une partie ou même la totalité du financement (État, collectivités, entreprises mécènes, etc.)
- Le grand public, qui va permettre d’animer le lieu et d’atteindre les objectifs de dynamisation du territoire.
Il est donc nécessaire d’adapter la communication précisément à chaque cible. Ceci demande une connaissance du milieu de la culture mais aussi une spécialisation en marketing ou en communication. Par exemple, un festival a besoin de partenaires pour pouvoir être produit, et les consommateurs doivent savoir que celui-ci existe… et avoir envie d’acheter des billets.
Il faut donc bien communiquer, que ce soit à l’aide des relations presse, de distributions de flyers, de publicité traditionnelle ou par le biais du web.
2 La culture n’est pas une nécessité pour le consommateur, c’est un plaisir.
Par conséquent, les produits culturels ne sont généralement pas accessibles à tout le monde car ils représentent à la fois un coût financier mais aussi un investissement en temps.
Même quand ceux-ci sont “gratuits” pour le consommateur, ils représentent toujours un investissement en temps que tout le monde n’est pas forcément enclin à dépenser.
3 Le marketing culturel est un marketing de l’offre.
Les acteurs du domaine culturel créent leur offre selon leur ligne artistique, indépendamment des lois du marché et adaptent leur communication par la suite. L’élaboration de l’œuvre ne prend généralement pas en compte les besoins et envies des consommateurs.
En d’autres termes, le marketing culturel consiste généralement à “trouver” le public en fonction de l’œuvre, et non à élaborer l’œuvre en fonction du public. C’est ce qu’on appelle le marketing de l’offre.
En revanche, certains domaines culturels comme celui du cinéma, ont une portée davantage commerciale et opèrent donc un marketing de la demande : ils étudient les tendances du marché et adaptent leur contenu.
4 Le cycle de vie du produit est différent.
En effet, un tableau, un film, un livre ou une œuvre musicale peuvent potentiellement s’affranchir du cycle de vie traditionnel puisqu’ils entrent dans une dimension artistique.
Par exemple, un tableau n’est pas “remplacé” au fil du temps, il perdure, gagne ou perd de la valeur au fil de sa vie.
D’une manière assez intéressante, on peut considérer que ce marketing culturel a pu favoriser l’émergence de “marques culturelles”. Cela peut-être des artistes dont le simple nom va permettre de transformer tous leurs projets en or, ou bien des organisations qui fournissent un véritable gage de qualité. Qui aujourd’hui ne connaît pas le Musée du Louvre ou l’Opéra de Paris ?
5 Le marketing relationnel est une variable incontestable de ce secteur.
En effet les spectateurs aiment échanger et être bien reçus, bien renseignés. Par ailleurs, il y a une volonté de partage d’expériences collectives, d’avoir un rôle actif et interactif de la part du public. Il existe des spectacles « participatifs » notamment dans le domaine du théâtre mais ce concept n’est que peu développé. Nous pouvons aussi citer le concept du festival avec une programmation très diversifiée permettant au consommateur de choisir ce qu’il souhaite voir.
Le marketing culturel est une dimension à part entière du marketing. C’est en cela que réside tout sa complexité : conjuguer conception artistique, financement de la production et marketing de l’œuvre auprès de sa cible.
Alors pour ton stage ? Prêt à relever le défi du marketing culturel ?!
D’autres articles sur la culture à découvrir ici.
85 thoughts on “Le marketing culturel, ça existe ?”
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