Dans le monde, 255 kg de café sont consommés toutes les secondes. Cette boissons aux nombreuses vertus fait partie intégrante de notre culture et est consommée dans de nombreuses occasion : après un repas, au réveil, périodes de révisions.. Peut-être, tenez-vous à ce moment même une tasse entre vos mains ?
D’où vient le café ?
Cette boisson provient du caféier, un arbuste originaire des hauts plateaux de l’Ethiopie et de l’Afrique tropicale. Pour pouvoir arriver jusque chez nous, les grains de café doivent donc parcourir de longs kilomètres et sont donc responsables de gaz à effet de serre. La culture du café se fait exclusivement dans les climats tropicaux, ce qui exclut donc le local.
Outre ce transport qui génère de fortes quantités de CO2, la consommation de café est à l’origine des changements climatiques pour de nombreuses raisons.
Les dosettes de café, un désastre écologique
Les français seraient les plus gros consommateurs de café en dosette au monde avec environ 5 kg de café chaque année. Ces capsules de café représente plus de la moitié de la consommation annuelle de café par les français. Elles sont très peu recyclées et la plupart du temps à usage unique. Elles engendrent donc des quantités de déchets importantes et non nécessaires. Cela s’explique par le fait qu’elles sont très difficiles à recycler et que les clients doivent faire l’effort de les ramener en boutique. Pour être recyclées elle devront alors parcourir de nombreux kilomètres encore une fois pour être refondues et réutilisées. Avec touts ces kilomètres parcourus et l’énergie nécessaire, le bilan carbone du recyclage de ces dosettes n’est pas très écologique.
Quelle est l’empreinte carbone du café et son impact environnemental ?
La première cause responsable de cet impact environnemental négatif est la forte de demande de café et la diminution des prix à la livre donné aux producteurs.
Pour pouvoir survivre financièrement, les producteurs de café en Amériques du sud ainsi qu’en Afrique sont amenés à toujours produire plus. Bien que les capsules de café aient engendré un gain économique majeur pour la filière, les producteurs n’en bénéficient pas. Plus grave, ils ont même vu le prix diminuer en passant de 3 euros/lb à 1 euros seulement !
Ils ont donc recours à la mono culture, une pratique qui appauvrit les sols, en plus d’utiliser de nombreux produits chimiques (intrants chimiques, pesticides, etc. ). Le phénomène de déforestation s’accentue aussi. L’empreinte du café représenterait environ 5 kg de CO2 par kg de café avant même la torréfaction ! La filière du café est donc aujourd’hui très peu durable et est directement victime de ses mauvaises pratiques avec les effets du changement climatique !
Suite à ces mauvaise pratiques, de nombreuses maladies et ravageurs apparaissent avec en particulier la rouille. De plus, il a été estimé qu’en 2050, 50 % des surfaces exploitable pour l’Arabica seraient perdues. Il est donc nécessaire, d’agit rapidement !
Un café plus durable, c’est possible ?
Pour enrailler les mauvaises pratiques agricoles qui affectent durablement les ressources naturelles, il faut traiter le problème à la source. C’est la mission principale du commerce équitable et notamment le mouvement Fairtrade/ Max Havelaar.
Les garanties liées à leur label sont multiples :
-économique : garantir des conditions commerciales plus durables avec notamment un prix minimum
– Environnementales : respects des écosystèmes, gestion durable des ressources, interdiction des OGM et intrants chimiques
-Sociale : respect des droits fondamentaux des droits du travail, non-discrimination
Une limite du commerce équitable
Avec ces conditions, un café plus durable sera possible. Néanmoins, il faudra toujours compter le CO2 produit par les longs trajets ainsi que les déchets produits par les dosettes.
Une autre solution est donc de trouver des produits alternatifs.
Café d’orge :
Cette à base de céréales se révèle être un substitut parfait du café que nous connaissons. Sa saveur se rapproche fortement du café. Bien qu’elle soit dépourvue en caféine, celle-ci comporte de nombreuses fibres et vitamines. De plus, elle est cultivée en Europe !
Le sarrasin torréfié
Originaire du Japon, cette boisson se révèle être une infusion de sarrasin torréfié. Les amateurs d’expresso devraient l’apprécier avec ses arômes de pain grillé .
Le café d’épeautre
Cette boisson est obtenue en torréfiant des grains d’épeautre. Cultivé en France, elle n’a pas besoin de parcourir de long kilomètres pour venir jusque chez vous ! De plus, elle se révèle être riche en acides aminés, calcium et magnésium !
Après torréfaction de ses racines, il est possible d’obtenir une infusion de celle-ci qui remplace complètement les vertus du café. Fortement consommée, la France se révèle en être le premier producteur !
Le café, un produit de consommation non éthique
Pour conclure, la consommation de café actuelle n’entre pas dans la démarche de consommation locale actuelle. De plus, étant trop massives et la rémunération des producteurs étant trop faible, la culture du café se fiat au détriment de l’environnement.
Je vous invite donc à limiter vos consommations à des gammes avec un label éthique ou bien à vous tourner vers des solutions alternatives. Ces solutions alternatives sont aussi plus respectueuse de votre santé.
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