Total et ses mensonges : du Greenwashing
Total, c’est 100 000 collaborateurs représentant plus de 150 nationalités, 2.8 millions de barils produits par jour soit 27 barils par seconde et 854 millions par an. Cela représente près de 136 milliards de litres par an. Présent dans 130 pays sur plus de 800 sites industriels avec un résultat net de 13.6 milliards de dollars l’année passée.
Total, depuis 2016, Pourtant, la firme continue d’investir massivement dans les énergies fossiles, cause principale des émissions de CO2. En 2018, plus de 90 % des investissements de Total allaient dans des hydrocarbures (pétrole et gaz) selon Cécile Marchand, chargée de campagne climat pour l’association les Amis de la Terre. Le groupe Total publie chaque année un rapport climat dans lequel, à travers sa communication, il justifie son exploitation des énergies fossiles et surtout vante son tournant vers les énergies renouvelables. Elle clame son engagement aux Accords de Paris de 2015 sur le climat.
Cette demande de changement, elle vient
de la société civile, des actionnaires de l’entreprise qui craignent une détérioration de l’image de Total veulent des déclarations publiques des actions qui suivent ces dires. C’est ainsi que les multinationales du monde entier ont pu commencer à établir une stratégie de communication pour créer une image liée aux préoccupations écologiques. Et pour une entreprise qui base son chiffre d’affaires sur l’or noir, cela tombe mal. A partir de 2016, Total affiche l’ambition de devenir “la major de l’énergie responsable” en s’appliquant à “réduire ses émissions de gaz à effet de serre”. Pourtant, en 2020, la majeure partie de leur business et de continuer à explorer de nouvelles réserves de pétrole et de gaz.
Récemment, Total a lancé de nouveaux projets d’exploitation pétrolière en Ouganda (Afrique de l’Est) et de GNL (Gaz naturel liquéfié) au Mozambique. Face aux multiples accusations tenues par les internautes sur le sujet des énergies fossiles, Total clame que le GNL est une bonne alternative au charbon et un complément flexible aux énergies renouvelables. Les associations de lutte contre le climat s’accordent à dire que c’est une véritable aberration d’écrire cela. En effet, l’exploitation de gaz créent des fuites de méthane en quantité, tout cela dans l’exploration, le transport, et le méthane est un gaz à effet de serre : Un gaz qui donc, est en partie responsable du réchauffement climatique et donc la création des accord de Paris.
La boucle est bouclée, Total affiche un engagement écologique factice et mise tout sur sa stratégie de communication pour justifier ses mauvaises actions. Mais ce n’est pas tout. Total propose aussi de “fausses solutions” pour détourner l’attention. En fait, la stratégie du groupe est de racheter des entreprises d’énergies renouvelables. Cela permet de faire diminuer la part relative du fossile dans son mix énergétique, mais cela ne permet pas de diminuer en quantité son exploitation des énergies fossiles. Et le groupe communique là-dessus pour permettre de faire baisser sa responsabilité.
Manque de chance pour Total, des groupements d’associations ont prouvé que les activités de Total étaient contraires aux accords de Paris. C’est le collectif Notre affaire à tous qui a assigné Total devant la justice pour les obliger à reconnaître les risques de son activité et de s’aligner sur une trajectoire d’objectifs pour se limiter à un réchauffement climatique de maximum 1.5°C. Le collectif associatif veut réellement que Total reconnaisse également son modèle économique dont le succès dépend très fortement des hydrocarbures. Un groupement de 11 grands investisseurs européens a déposé un projet de résolution portant sur le climat, en vue de le proposer à l’assemblée générale du groupe pour faire modifier les statuts de l’entreprise (spoil : elle n’a pas été adoptée).
Des actions sont menées, elles prennent de l’ampleur, mais peu réussissent réellement à avoir un réel impact sur Total. En effet, suite à ces actions, ils avaient publié de nouvelles ambitions climatiques, qui, selon ces mêmes associations, sont complètement insuffisantes par rapport à la réalité des choses. On a l’impression de voir un ultime remake de David contre Goliath où les multinationales gagnent toujours.
Donc, après tous ces mensonges, regardons les campagnes publicitaires de Total. Déjà, en 2008, dans une campagne publicitaire publiée à la télévision, on voit de belles images de verdure et de jardins avec une voix qui nous explique que la lutte contre le réchauffement climatique et les activités de Total ne sont pas contradictoires…Vu ce dont on a parlé avant, on comprends bien le subterfuge de la communication.
On part en 2015 cette fois, avec un spot TV qui nous emmène dans le monde entier, sur les sites industriels comme à la direction de Total où le message est que peu importe son origine, sa langue, son métier, la préservation de la planète est une priorité. Tout cela sous la musique entraînante de Kavinsky – Road Game. Le slogan de fin est d’ailleurs “Total, engagé pour une énergie meilleure”. Je vous laisse méditer là-dessus.
En conclusion, on comprend bien que le but de Total est de continuer à exploiter les énergies fossiles non renouvelables et polluantes car le groupe est complètement dépendant financièrement à ces dernières. Leur enjeu est donc une stratégie de communication à gros budget pour limiter les dégâts de la dégradation de son image de marque.
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